General principles of first aid
Helping a poisoned animal is a very difficult task even for an experienced veterinarian, not to mention the owner of the animal, since it is usually very difficult to determine what kind of poison the pet poisoned. Nevertheless, first aid should be provided as soon as possible. With an obvious picture of poisoning, and with suspicion of it, first of all, you should try to find out the nature of the poisonous substance and its penetration into the body: through the respiratory system, skin or mouth. Any information and trifles found at the place of poisoning can help with this: packaging from any chemicals or drugs; leftover food; odors of volatile substances, vomit with a characteristic odor, etc. Naturally, accurate identification of a poisonous substance will help to properly and efficiently fight poisoning. The provision of assistance consists of certain non-phased actions aimed at detoxification:
a) to stop the flow of poison into the body, i.e., prevent further absorption through the gastrointestinal tract or skin. In the latter case, it is necessary to remove the poison from the skin surface as quickly as possible: wash off the poison with ordinary cool water, preferably with soap, and cut off areas of the hair with poison. Water-soluble poisons are washed off with a large amount of water, fat-soluble poisons, for example, chlorophos, are removed with a large amount of vegetable or liquid mineral oil. Dry substances must be not only mechanically removed, but also neutralized (alkalis with acids, acids with alkalis);
b) if the poison enters the stomach, quickly remove it from the body by giving an emetic. The simplest tool, always at hand, was salt salt. Its solution is prepared, prepared at the rate of 1 teaspoon per 0.5 liters of water. You can just drink as much water as possible to the animal – when the stomach is full, vomiting should occur. You can add 5 ml of a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution to water as an emetic.
The most effective way to induce vomiting is by administering apomorphine hydrochloride subcutaneously (0.1-1 l of a 1% solution), but it is better not to do this on your own, as the animal may develop collapse.
Contraindications for inducing vomiting: weakness and lethargy; inability to swallow and cramps; violation of cardiac activity; poisoning with concentrated acids and alkalis.
In case of acid poisoning, milk is given inside, 100 times more in quantity than there was acid, and alkalis are diluted 60 times with fruit juice or vinegar solution per 250 ml of water, 30 ml of 9% vinegar);
c) reduce the concentration of poison in the gastrointestinal tract by drinking plenty and inducing vomiting, by setting a cleansing enema;
d) urgently restore the disturbed functions of the animal.
Almost all drugs that help a poisoned animal are antidotes are based on the ability of the antidote to interact with the substances that caused the poisoning. For example: neutralization of alkalis with acids and, conversely, acids with alkalis; a solution of potassium permanganate of a pale pink color oxidizes poisons of organic origin, that is, transfers the poison into an inactive state. To absorb poison, it is also necessary to give the animal adsorbents: carbolene (activated carbon), polyphepan, chalk, talc, milk, strong cold tea, etc. egg white or fat. The following drugs will provide invaluable assistance in cases of poisoning: “Antilipid tea”, “Chitosan” – in dissolved form, “Spirulina” – in powdered form, and “Kholikan”.
Symptomatic therapy for poisoning is aimed at stopping certain symptoms. With indomitable vomiting, metoclopramide (cerucal) is used; with convulsions – relanium; with tachycardia and shortness of breath – glucose, hemodez, reopoliglyukin; with oliguria and anuria – furosemide, perform perirenal novocaine blockade; with bleeding – vikasol, adrenomimetics (mesatone); in case of respiratory failure – cordiamine, camphor, lobelin, cytitone; with symptoms of cardiovascular failure – korglikon, strophanthin; when the body temperature drops, the dog is warmed; when rising to 40 degrees Celsius – doused with cold water. In most cases, to combat exotoxic shock, the administration of plasma substituting solutions and glucocorticoids in shock doses (10-30 mg / kg / day. Prednisolone, 5-10 mg / kg / day. Dexamethasone) is indicated.