Vaccination is the only effective way to deal with a whole range of infectious diseases of dogs. It is especially important for puppies and older animals. Dogs are usually vaccinated against rabies, plague, hepatitis, parvo and coronavirus enteritis, parainfluenza and leptospirosis. Rabies vaccination is required by law and is required to obtain veterinary certificates and certificates. All information about the vaccinations is entered in the veterinary passport, which is issued by the veterinarian with the type of vaccine, the date of vaccination and the registration number in the vaccination log. This is especially important if you plan to participate in exhibitions or plan to travel with your pet around the country or abroad.
Today, both individual vaccines against each of the listed diseases have been created, as well as multivalent Continue reading
Mycoplasmas – the smallest free-living microorganisms (prokaryotes), belong to the family of Musplasmataceae, which is part of the Mycoplasmatales class of the Mollicutes class. Mycoplasmas are extremely polymorphic microorganisms. In smears prepared from organs and cultures, round, ring-shaped, oval, cocciform and filiform formations are found. Cells have a different size, which according to various authors, ranges from 125 to 600 nm. The features of mycoplasmas that are unique to prokaryotes are: the absence of the cell wall and its precursors (which biophysically brings them closer to the L-forms of bacteria). Instead of the cell wall, they have a three-layer membrane, a cytoplasm with a nuclear substance, granules and vacuoles. The membrane consists of polar lipids and proteins. The average cell Continue reading
The dog is a predator. Its gastrointestinal tract is adapted to digest animal protein (meat and meat products). All the conversations: they say, so many years next to a person, matured, accustomed, changed and became a vegetarian – are meaningless. There is indisputable evidence: a relatively large stomach, short intestines, a specific ratio of intestinal microflora, a limited set of enzymes – the dog inherited almost unchanged form from its closest relative – the wolf. And if the horse does not occur to anyone to feed meat, or, God forbid, pour diesel fuel into his beloved car with a gasoline engine (it will be covered!), Then dogs are often offered porridge and vegetables as the main diet. But it is precisely for this reason that our pets suffer from many chronic diseases. Continue reading
If the owner of the Labrador does not plan to receive offspring from his pets and does not want to burden himself with the worries associated with caring for the animal during estrus, pregnancy and childbirth, then it is better to sterilize the dog. The use of chemical contraceptives (contrasex) for a long period violates the hormonal status of the animal, which is subsequently fraught with the development of such pathologies as: ovarian cysts, glandular hyperplasia of the uterus, uterine tumors, as well as the occurrence of hydrometers or pyometers. These pathologies are treated only surgically. In addition, if an unsterilized animal was not pregnant during life, then in old age (6-8 years, depending on the type and breed of animal), the likelihood of developing pathologies associated with reproductive organs also increases. In addition, it is scientifically Continue reading
George A. Pagett, an outstanding veterinarian and geneticist, suggested that breeders, as an urgent and priority task, set priorities in the fight against hereditary diseases. He meant that the higher the mortality and severity of the disease, the more intensively the selection against him should be conducted. The intensity of selection should also be determined by the frequency of the defective gene (s) in the population. Of course, the success of the fight depends on the availability of genetic diagnostic methods. Recently, dog breeders have at their disposal another sign for selecting pairs or choosing producers – this is the presence of a dog’s certificate of passed genetic tests. Breeders were and remain custodians of breeds. And the well-being of the breeds, and sometimes the continuation of their existence, largely depends on how they can manage the information that the tests provide them. “First of all, do no harm” – the first commandment of medicine, which remains central in this case. Genetic tests are a powerful tool, and their use can lead to significant, both positive and negative changes in the gene pool of the breed. That is why George Pagett spent more than one year of his life collecting data on the manifestation of hereditary diseases in dogs and test results for all breeds, for this he wrote his book, which appeared in Russia after the death of the author. Continue reading