Mycoplasmas – the smallest free-living microorganisms (prokaryotes), belong to the family of Musplasmataceae, which is part of the Mycoplasmatales class of the Mollicutes class. Mycoplasmas are extremely polymorphic microorganisms. In smears prepared from organs and cultures, round, ring-shaped, oval, cocciform and filiform formations are found. Cells have a different size, which according to various authors, ranges from 125 to 600 nm. The features of mycoplasmas that are unique to prokaryotes are: the absence of the cell wall and its precursors (which biophysically brings them closer to the L-forms of bacteria). Instead of the cell wall, they have a three-layer membrane, a cytoplasm with a nuclear substance, granules and vacuoles. The membrane consists of polar lipids and proteins. The average cell Continue reading
Progressive Retinal Degeneration (PRD / PRA) refers to a group of genetic (hereditary) retinal diseases that cause damage to the photoreceptor (photosensitive) retinal cells – rods and cones, leading to their degeneration and ultimately death.
The first signs of the disease that appear in the animal are a violation of twilight (night) vision, the affected animal is poorly oriented in the dark. Further, daytime vision is gradually deteriorating. Owners also pay attention to the constantly dilated, poorly responsive to the pupils of their pet. The dog’s eyes in the dark, instead of the usual bright green, begin to “glow” yellow or even silver. In some dogs with progressive retinal degeneration, bilateral cataract begins to develop, the owners notice that the dog’s eyes become white-blue, cloudy (this is especially noticeable with dilated pupils). These signs, depending on the early or late form of the disease, most often begin to appear at the age of 1 to 5 years, but the disease can manifest itself at any age. Continue reading
The first time I saw these dogs was in the movies. I really liked the hero’s yellow dog – strong, sociable, playful; I was terribly worried when the dog was shot in the middle of the picture … Once, while walking in the park, I met a woman with a dog that looked surprisingly like a dog from the movie. We talked, and I found out that these are Labradors, very pleasant and funny dogs, helpers, lifeguards. The woman talked a lot about her Chanel and Labradors, and when I let her pet her pet, I realized that I wanted such a dog, a dog with such soft hair, with such warm eyes, with such a wonderful character.
When the chocolate Labrador puppy appeared in our house, the impression was that he was always with us. Walking, feeding, playing was a completely natural activity, absolutely not burdening any of our family members. We did not know the gnawed furniture or shoes, the labrador ate all the food offered, and on the street passersby did not hide their admiration. Continue reading